October 2, 2023

In a scientific overview revealed within the journal Brain Sciences, scientists have mentioned the utility and usefulness of social robots and brain-computer interface video video games in treating younger individuals with consideration deficit hyperactivity dysfunction (ADHD).  

Social Robots and Brain–Computer Interface Video Games for Dealing with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Systematic Review
Research: Social Robots and Brain–Computer Interface Video Games for Dealing with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Systematic Review. Picture Credit score: Yaoinlove/Shutterstock.com


Consideration deficit hyperactivity dysfunction (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental psychiatric dysfunction characterised by a scarcity of consideration, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. In kids, ADHD can lead to poor tolerance, temper change, and low vanity. If the situation persists into maturity, it will possibly doubtlessly enhance the danger of substance abuse, self-harm, and suicide tendency.

Therapeutic interventions for ADHD embody pharmacological, behavioral, cognitive, and psychological remedies. Novel applied sciences have been developed with the help of pc science to take care of ADHD, together with social robots, brain-computer interface (BCI) video video games, digital actuality, augmented actuality, eye trackers, and synthetic intelligence.

Social robots and BCI video video games are used throughout remedy periods to make them extra engaging to kids, which helps enhance their motivation. BCI video video games additionally supply cognitive and neurofeedback coaching to kids residing with ADHD.

Particularly, social robots are used to assist kids with homework actions and assist therapists by automating the supervision, teaching, motivation, and companionship facets of interactions with kids residing with ADHD.    

Social robots and BCI video video games to handle kids with ADHD

A complete of 17 research investigating the influence of social robots on kids and adolescents with ADHD had been included on this systematic overview. Equally, a complete of 19 research associated to the appliance of BCI video video games for ADHD remedy had been included. Each healthcare and engineering facets of the utilized applied sciences had been assessed within the overview.

The forms of functions utilized in chosen research had been categorized into three teams. The primary group included functions associated to rehabilitation therapies; the second group included functions associated to ADHD analysis; and the third group included functions associated to neuroscience analysis. One of many functions included within the second group reported having 97% confidence in diagnosing ADHD.

The most typical robots utilized in robot-based functions had been humanoid robots similar to Nao, Silbot, Robotis Bioloid, Pepper, Sanbot Elf, and Ifbot. Amongst actual, digital, and hybrid environments utilized in these functions, the utilization of actual environments was the best. In BCI-based online game functions, 3D, 2D, digital actuality, and blended actuality environments had the best utilization.

The research associated to healthcare functions of social robots and BCI-based video video games primarily centered on the effectiveness of functions and their usefulness in supporting neuroscience analysis. As well as, one examine investigating acceptability ranges reported optimistic acceptance of BCI-based online game functions by kids with ADHD.

In research investigating healthcare effectiveness, social robot- and BCI video game-based functions had been primarily designed to scale back consideration deficit and enhance studying, writing, spatial reminiscence, working reminiscence, communication, and interplay abilities in kids with ADHD.

Nearly all of functions utilized in these research had been within the growing and testing phases. Solely two functions, particularly Focus Pocus and EndeavorRx, had been commercialized and prescribed for treating kids with ADHD.

About 88% of robot-based functions had been examined on younger individuals with ADHD. Furthermore, a few of these functions had been examined on younger individuals with ADHD who had extra developmental disabilities, together with autism spectrum dysfunction, oppositional defiant dysfunction, cerebral palsy, or studying incapacity.     

These functions had been examined for various functions, together with practical validity and healthcare advantages. Total, research associated to social robot-based functions reported promising outcomes in kids with ADHD.

Research associated to BCI-based video video games had evaluated the effectiveness and value of the functions amongst wholesome kids and people residing with completely different ranges of ADHD. In a single examine, a BCI-based online game utility confirmed increased effectiveness in sustaining consideration in comparison with probably the most generally used cartoon-based neurofeedback system.

Different comparability research confirmed that each pharmacological interventions and BCI-based online game functions have related effectiveness in lowering inattentive signs in kids with ADHD. Research involving wholesome kids confirmed that BCI-based online game functions can enhance consideration ranges in each wholesome and ADHD kids.

Potential challenges

By analyzing all chosen research, this systematic overview recognized sure challenges for growing computational functions based mostly on social robots or BCI video video games to deal with ADHD. 

Due to individual-level variability in ADHD signs, it may very well be difficult to develop a basic utility for diagnosing individuals with completely different types of ADHD. One other problem is to customise cognitive coaching functions in accordance with the traits of every individual.

Correct protected management measure is a vital parameter to think about whereas growing robot-based functions. That is notably important to keep away from bodily hurt throughout human-robot interactions.

On the moral degree, you will need to be sure that the functions don’t compromise the social–emotional growth of youngsters.